Evolving DISE: Strengthening
of EMIS in India
For successful implementation of any educational programme,
effective monitoring, coupled with efficient information system, is essential. While
monitoring framework under SSA is developed separately, concerted efforts have been
made towards strengthening of Educational Management Information System (EMIS) in
Indian education system is one of the largest education
systems in the World; it caters to the needs of more than 1,028 million people.
Keeping in view its size, the information system has the following limitations:
(i) multiple data collection agencies; (ii) multiple directorates involved in data
collection and lack of coordination among them; (iii) lack of understanding of the
concept and definitions of educational statistics; (iv) lack of adequate staff at
different levels; (v) lack of qualified and trained staff, specially at the lower
levels; (vi) problems in distribution and collection of data-capture formats; (vii)
lack of district-specific time series data; (viii) time-lag in data; (ix) reliability
of education data; (x) data gaps; (xi) lack of equipments (computers) at lower levels;
(xii) creation of new districts and changes in boundaries of the existing districts;
(xiii) poor dissemination and utilization of data; and (xiv) lack of accountability
at all levels.
Notwithstanding the above limitations, the school statistics
form the basis of planning, monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of education,
in general, and primary and elementary education, in particular.
At the time of initiating District Primary Education Programme
(DPEP) in 1994, it was felt that a sound information system is essential for successful
monitoring and implementation of the programme. It was expressed that DPEP, with
a focus on decentralized planning, required up-to-date and reliable school level
information soon after it was collected. The MHRD in 1994, as a part of the DPEP
national endeavour, decided to design and develop a school based computerized information
system, the main responsibility for which was entrusted to National Institute of
Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi.
In this background, a pilot project for revitalization
of educational statistics in India was initiated at NIEPA during 1995 with financial
assistance from UNICEF. The project was to examine issues related to identification
of data needs, processes and procedures for data collection, developing a framework
for data flows and computerization, and facilitating the use of educational indicators
in planning, management, monitoring and evaluation.
In tune with the spirit of the DPEP, district was selected
as a nodal point for collection, computerization, analysis and use of school level
The first version (dbase) of the software, named as ‘District
Information System for Education’ (DISE) was released by NIEPA during the middle
of 1995. The district level professionals were assisted and trained in the establishment
of EMIS units. The first major review of the DISE software was undertaken during
1997- 98 (PowerBuilder/SQL Anywhere). The software was later redesigned in
2001 in the light of requirements of the SSA (PowerBuilder/Oracle). Not only the
coverage of DISE was extended to non-DPEP states but it was also extended from primary
to the entire elementary level of education. DISE is under revision and the revised
version will have the following additional variables:
Schools by Type of Boundary
Schools by Source of Drinking
Furniture for Teachers and
Students and Availability of Kitchen Shed in the School
Enrolment by Minority
Distribution of Children by
Examination Results of SC and
ST Students etc.
Efforts are being made
to develop DISE as a complete user friendly menu-driven software. Some of the features
that are being incorporated in the modified software are:
Complete flexibility will be
provided to users to add ‘n’ number of state and district-specific supplementary
variables in the Data-Capture Format and generate reports at all desired levels;
To improve the consistency
of data, efforts are being made to highlight schools that reported inconsistent
Export data to popular formats
such as Excel, Text etc. will be made available;
Users will be able to
make data entry at Block level and then merge the data into single district level
database by using the new improved DISE2001 Export Utility etc.
2001: Main Features
The main features of DISE 2001 are briefly presented below:
The system covers eight years
of schooling in all primary, upper primary and primary/upper primary sections of
the secondary and higher secondary schools.
The concept and definitions
of educational variables involved therein have been standardized at the national
level and are uniformally followed by all districts and states.
Manual aggregation of
data at different levels is completely replaced by computerized data entry and report
It provides time-series data
at school, village, cluster, block and district levels.
The system defines core data
on school location, management, rural urban, enrolment, buildings, equipment, teachers,
incentives, medium of instruction, children with disabilities, examination results
and student flows.
Detailed data on individual
teachers, para-teachers and community teachers and their profile, including data
on in-service training received, is collected and made available.
It eliminates the chances of
data manipulation at various levels. The school remains responsible for correctness
of the data supplied. States need to ensure correctness of the data supplied on
five per cent sample basis.
The states/districts have flexibility
of adding supplementary variables depending upon their specific requirements on
year-to-year basis. No additional software for computerization and analysis of state/district
specific data is required.
The states/districts can develop
their own large database using ‘designer’ module and integrate a variety of school/cluster/block
level data with it. The software handles multiple databases at various levels and
provides tools of data analysis and presentation.
A large number of standardized
reports on school related variables and performance indicators aggregated at the
cluster, block and district levels, are generated by the software.
DISE ensures two-way flow of
information. School summary report for each school is generated for sharing with
the school and members of Village Education Committee.
It provides an easy-to-use
dynamic graphics facility to enhance the presentation of various types of
graphs and data.
DISE presents multi-user and
modular system of software design for better management and security of databases.
It responds to pre-defined
queries on standard aspects, like school list, list of villages without primary
and upper primary schools, single-teacher schools, schools without buildings, schools
with high PTR, etc.
It helps user defined dynamic
query on hundreds of variables.
It provides facilities
for basic statistical analysis, including generation of new variables and their
The reports can be shared across
a large number of users without full software installation.
Data can be exported to many
other formats for statistical and other analyses by users etc.
Major Outcomes of DISE Efforts
Through the concerted efforts, MIS Unit is now operational
both at the district and state levels and is equipped with necessary hardware and
The DISE software is
now operational in 581 districts in 29 States & UTs of the country and is providing
vital information for policy formulation and preparation of district elementary
DISE has completely eliminated
time-lag in educational statistics. At the national level, time-lag in educational
data is reduced to less than one year from the earlier 7-8 years. Gap between collection
and dissemination of data stands reduced dramatically. Time-lag within the state
is reduced to few months.
DISE has also eliminated data
gaps as comprehensive information is now available on all aspects of universal elementary
education across the country.
It is for the first time that
a time-series data is made available at the school level. The trend analysis of
DISE data helps in identifying major block and district specific issues for being
used in developing perspective and annual plans.
For the first time, a
District Report Card on elementary education is being released annually as part
of DISE dissemination activities, which contains time-series and cross-sectional
data on more than four hundred variables at the district level. State Report Cards
have also been developed and are being disseminated for the last four years. The
Analytical Report containing detailed analysis of DISE data is also being published
annually. Efforts will be made to develop Country Report Card once all the States
& UTs get covered under DISE.
Official website of DISE (http://dpepmis.org)
has been developed and is being updated frequently. District Report Cards and raw
data in case of each of the district covered under DISE are uploaded. Data-Capture
Formats, software patches etc. are also made available to users. Analytical Reports
are also made available on the Internet. Efforts are being made to make available
School Report Cards in case of all one million plus schools through the internet.
As an online help to
users, DISE group of users is formed on the Internet, which is very active.
Users post problems of common interest to group for their solutions.
UNICEF has decided to support
studies based on the DISE data. At the international level, to create awareness
about DISE and type of data it generates, presentations were recently made at the
Oxford and Cambridge Universities (UK). Through concerted efforts, it is hoped that
demand for DISE data will be generated in years that follow.
DISE: Coverage & Type
Total 604 districts across 35 States and UTs have been covered
under DISE during 2005-06.
Information on the following key variables have been made
available over a period of time at school, cluster, block, district, state and National
Data on number of blocks, CRC’s,
villages and schools in case of all the States.
Key data on elementary education
in terms of the number of schools, enrolment, and teachers, classified by school
category and school management (also in respect of a few variables in case of rural/urban
Grade-wise and level-wise enrolment
in each State.
Examination results for the
previous academic session for the terminal classes at primary and upper primary
levels of education.
into good condition, requiring minor and major repairs by school category.
Number of schools by category
and by type of buildings.
Sex-wise enrolment of
children with disabilities at primary and upper primary levels.
Gender and caste distribution
of regular and para-teachers and the proportion of teachers undergoing in-service
teacher training during the pervious year.
Distribution of regular
and para-teachers by educational and professional qualifications and by school category.
Enrolment by medium of
instruction and by school category.
Sex-wise number of students
benefited by various incentive schemes at primary and upper primary levels.
in terms of school category; ratio of primary to upper primary schools/sections;
enrolment distribution: total, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, percentage
female enrolment; gender-parity index; classrooms; single-teacher schools; schools
with attached pre-primary classes; percentage of under-age & over-age children
in primary and upper primary classes; apparent survival rate (up to Grade V), dropout
rate, retention rate, and transition rate from primary to upper primary level.
Quality indicators according
to category of schools, teacher-pupil ratio; availability of female teachers; schools
without female teacher; blackboard and building; percentage schools received and
utilized school development and TLM grant; students classroom ratio; availability
of drinking water, common toilet and girl’s toilet in school, etc.